Facts About Israel: History

 

Drawing by Noam Nadav

2010 Edition

TIMELINE | BIBLICAL TIMES | SECOND TEMPLE | FOREIGN DOMINATION | STATE OF ISRAEL | PEACE PROCESS | ISRAEL IN MAPS


 

 Facts About Israel: History

Section of an illuminated late-medieval map of the Tribes of Israel (Courtesy R. Ben-Haim)​

17th-6th C. BCEBIBLICAL TIMES

(BCE – Before the Common Era)

c.17th century

 Facts About Israel: History

      

 Facts About Israel: History
 

Drawings by
Noam Nadav

Abraham, Isaac, Jacob – patriarchs of the Jewish people and bearers of a belief in one God – settle in the Land of Israel.
Famine forces Israelites to migrate to Egypt.c.13th centuryExodus from Egypt: Moses leads Israelites from Egypt, followed by 40 years of wandering in the desert.
Torah, including the Ten Commandments, received at Mount Sinai.13th-12th
centuriesIsraelites settle in the Land of Israelc.1020Jewish monarchy established; Saul, first king.c.1000Jerusalem made capital of David’s kingdom.c.960First Temple, the national and spiritual center of the Jewish people, built in Jerusalem by King Solomon.c. 930Divided kingdom: Judah and Israel722-720Israel crushed by Assyrians; 10 tribes exiled (Ten Lost Tribes).586

Judah conquered by Babylonia; Jerusalem and First Temple destroyed; most Jews exiled.


THE SECOND TEMPLE PERIOD
538-142Persian and Hellenistic periods538-515Many Jews return from Babylonia; Temple rebuilt.332Land conquered by Alexander the Great; Hellenistic rule.166-160
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
Maccabean (Hasmonean) revolt against restrictions on practice of Judaism and desecration of the Temple142-129Jewish autonomy under Hasmoneans.129-63Jewish independence under Hasmonean monarchy.63Jerusalem captured by Roman general, Pompey. 

63 BCE-313
CE

Roman rule63-4 BCE
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
Herod, Roman vassal king, rules the Land of Israel;
Temple in Jerusalem refurbished
(CE – The Common Era)
c. 20-33Ministry of Jesus of Nazareth66Jewish revolt against the Romans70Destruction of Jerusalem and Second Temple.73Last stand of Jews at Masada.132-135Bar Kokhba uprising against Rome.c. 210Codification of Jewish oral law (Mishna) completed. FOREIGN DOMINATION
313-636Byzantine rulec. 390Commentary on the Mishna (Jerusalem Talmud) completed.614Persian invasion 636-1099Arab rule691On site of First and Second Temples in Jerusalem, Dome of the Rock built by Caliph Abd el-Malik. 1099-1291Crusader domination
(Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem) 1291-1516Mamluk rule 1517-1917Ottoman rule1564Code of Jewish law (Shulhan Arukh) published.1860First neighborhood built outside walls of Jerusalem’s Old City.1882-1903First Aliya (large-scale immigration), mainly from Russia.1897
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
First Zionist Congress convened by Theodor Herzl in Basel, Switzerland; Zionist Organization founded.1904-14Second Aliya, mainly from Russia and Poland.1909First kibbutz, Degania, and first modern all-Jewish city, Tel Aviv, founded.1917400 years of Ottoman rule ended by British conquest;
British Foreign Minister Balfour pledges support for establishment of a "Jewish national home in Palestine" 

1918-48

British rule1919-23Third Aliya, mainly from Russia1920Histadrut (General Federation of Labor) and Haganah (Jewish defense organization) founded.
Vaad Leumi (National Council) set up by Jewish community (Yishuv) to conduct its affairs.1921First moshav (cooperative village), Nahalal, founded.1922Britain granted Mandate for Palestine (Land of Israel) by League of Nations; Transjordan set up on three-fourths of the area, leaving one fourth for the Jewish national home.
Jewish Agency representing Jewish community vis-a-vis Mandate authorities set up.1924
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
Technion, first institute of technology, founded in Haifa.1924-32Fourth Aliya, mainly from Poland.1925Hebrew University of Jerusalem opened on Mount Scopus.1929Hebron Jews massacred by Arab terrorists.1931Etzel, Jewish underground organization, founded.1933-39Fifth Aliya, mainly from Germany.1936-39Anti-Jewish riots instigated by Arab terrorists.1939Jewish immigration severely limited by British White Paper.1939-45World War II; Holocaust in Europe.1941Lehi underground movement formed; Palmach, strike force of Haganah, set up.1944Jewish Brigade formed as part of British forces.1947UN proposes the establishment of Arab and Jewish states in the Land. 
STATE OF ISRAEL
1948
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History

End of British Mandate (14 May)
State of Israel proclaimed (14 May).
Israel invaded by five Arab states (15 May).
Israel Defense Forces (IDF) established.
War of Independence (May 1948-July 1949).

1949

Armistice agreements signed with Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon.
Jerusalem divided under Israeli and Jordanian rule.
First Knesset (parliament) elected.
Israel admitted to United Nations as 59th member.

1948-52
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
Mass immigration from Europe and Arab countries.1956Sinai Campaign1962Adolf Eichmann tried and executed in Israel for his part in the Holocaust.1964
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
National Water Carrier completed, bringing water from Lake Kinneret in the north to the semi-arid south.1967
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
Six-Day War; Jerusalem reunited.1968-70Egypt’s War of Attrition against Israel1973Yom Kippur War1975Israel becomes an associate member of the European Common Market.1977Likud forms government after Knesset elections, end of 30 years of Labor rule.
Visit of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat to Jerusalem.1978Camp David Accords include framework for comprehensive peace in the Middle East and proposal for Palestinian self-government.1979Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty signed.
Prime Minister Menachem Begin and President Anwar Sadat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.1981Israel Air Force destroys Iraqi nuclear reactor just before it is to become operative.1982Israel’s three-stage withdrawal from Sinai Peninsula completed.
Operation Peace for Galilee removes  Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) terrorists from Lebanon.1984National unity government (Likud and Labor) formed after elections.
Operation Moses, immigration of Jews from Ethiopia.1985Free Trade Agreement signed with United States.1987Widespread violence (Intifada) starts in Israeli-administered areas.1988Likud government wins elections.1989
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
Four-point peace initiative proposed by Israel.
Start of mass immigration of Jews from former Soviet Union.1991Israel attacked by Iraqi Scud missiles during Gulf war.
Middle East peace conference convened in Madrid;
Operation Solomon, airlift of Jews from Ethiopia
.1992Diplomatic relations established with China and India.
New government headed by Yitzhak Rabin of Labor Party.1993Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements for the Palestinians signed by Israel and PLO, as representative of the Palestinian people (Oslo Accords).1994

 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History

Implementation of Palestinian self-government in Gaza Strip and Jericho area.
Full diplomatic relations with the Holy See.
Morocco and Tunisia interest offices set up.
Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty signed.
Rabin, Peres, Arafat awarded Nobel Peace Prize.

1995Broadened Palestinian self-government implemented in West Bank and Gaza Strip; Palestinian Council elected.
Prime Minister Rabin assassinated at peace rally.
Shimon Peres becomes prime minister.1996Fundamentalist Arab terrorism against Israel escalates.
Operation Grapes of Wrath, retaliation for Hizbullah terrorists’ attacks on northern Israel.
Trade representation offices set up in Oman and Qatar.
Likud forms government after Knesset elections.
Binyamin Netanyahu elected prime minister.
Omani trade representation office opened in Tel Aviv.1997Hebron Protocol signed by Israel and the PA.1998
 Facts About Israel: History
 Facts About Israel: History
Israel celebrates its 50th anniversary.
Israel and the PLO sign the Wye River Memorandum to facilitate implementation of the Interim Agreement.1999Ehud Barak (left-wing One Israel party) elected prime minister; forms coalition government.
Israel and the PLO sign the Sharm-el-Sheikh Memorandum.2000Visit of Pope Paul II.
Israel withdraws from the Security Zone in southern Lebanon.
Israel admitted to UN Western European and Others Group.
Renewed violence (Second Intifada). Prime Minister Barak resigns.2001Ariel Sharon (Likud) elected Prime Minister; forms broad-based unity government.
The Sharm-el-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee report (Mitchell Report) issued.
Palestinian-Israeli Security Implementation Work Plan (Tenet ceasefire plan) proposed.
Rechavam Ze’evy, Minister of Tourism, assassinated by Palestinian terrorists.

2002

Israel launches Operation Defensive Shield in response to massive Palestinian terrorist attacks.
Israel begins building the anti-terrorist fence to stop West Bank terrorists from killing Israeli citizens.
Prime Minister Sharon disperses the Knesset, calling for new elections to be held on 28 January 2003.

2003

Right-of-center coalition government formed by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon.
Israel accepts the Roadmap.

2005

Israel carries out the Disengagement Plan, ending Israel’s presence in the Gaza Strip. 

2006

After Prime Minister Sharon suffers a stroke, Ehud Olmert becomes acting prime minister.
Following elections on 28 March, Prime Minister Ehud Olmert forms new government led by the Kadima Party.
Israel carried out military operations against Palestinian terrorists in Gaza after kidnapping of Israeli soldier.
The Second War in Lebanon, during which Israel carried out military operations against Hizbullah terrorism from southern Lebanon, following missile attacks and kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers.

2007

Shimon Peres elected President by the Knesset.
Israel declares Gaza "hostile territory" following Hamas violent takeover of Gaza Strip.

2008

Israel celebrates its 60th anniversary.
Israel launches its Gaza Operation (Operation Cast Lead) in response to the barrage of over 10,000 rockets and mortars fired from the Gaza Strip.

2009

Benjamin Netanyahu is elected Prime Minister in national elections held in February 2009, and forms a broad-based coalition government
The city of Tel Aviv celebrates its 100th anniversary.

2010

Israel joins the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).