Association of Towns Law, 1955 (Summary)

Municipal Corporation Ordinance (New Version) (Summary)

Local Councils Ordinance (New Version) (Summary)

The responsibility to protect the environment is invested in local authorities with the Ministry of the Environment as the supervising authority.

The Association of Towns Law allows a group of municipalities or local councils ("local authorities") to band together in an "Association of Towns" by order of the Minister of the Interior. Before establishing an Association of Towns, the Minister of the Interior must publish notice of his intention to do so, and hear objections from other local authorities concerned in the matter.

As defined by this Law, an Association of Towns "is a corporation and, within the limits of its powers, may enter into contracts, acquire, hold and transfer property, sue and be sued, and perform any act required for carrying out its functions." An Association of Towns is managed by a council that is made up of representatives from each local authority in the association.

An association of towns must submit a yearly budget to the Minister of the Interior for approval; the budget is financed by funds levied in a quota system from the involved local authorities.

The Municipal Corporations Ordinance and Local Councils Ordinance invest local governing bodies with the authority and responsibility to protect the environment. The authorities provided for in the Municipal Corporations Ordinance include:

– to build and maintain public buildings and other buildings;

– to create and direct services, enterprises and institutions that will benefit the public, or to participate in their creation;

– to provide housing and work for the needy, the blind, and the handicapped;

– to create, maintain and direct public swimming pools and bathing places;

– to provide, plan, improve, and maintain public parks and gardens and recreation sites for public enjoyment; to plant trees on streets and in public places and provide shaded areas;

– to tear down buildings which are a threat to public safety or health;

– to require renovations for the purpose of maintaining an acceptable appearance;

– to prohibit the abandonment of cars, junk, metal or other materials, and to remove them from the public space;

– to provide for the building of sewers, drains, toilets and urinals, and to require that these be maintained under sanitary conditions;

– to regulate the sale of animal products;

– to require the sanitary maintenance of all buildings;

– to provide cemeteries;

Other important sections of the Municipal Corporation Ordinance include:

Right to know of members of the city council 140. (a) City documents will be open to every member of the city council; documents will be made available within three days of a request by a council member to the Mayor; he may prepare a summary or a copy of the documents for himself. However, documents may not be removed from City Hall without the permission of the Mayor.

(b) The right to know according to subsection (a) does not apply to documents which are, according to the law, closed to view, or documents that deal directly with the rights or responsibility of the individual towards the city, except when the issue is under discussion of a committee of which the person requesting to see the material is a member.

(c) Documents of the city will be made available at the request of the Chairman of a committee for the use of the committee during its meeting, as long as the documents are relevant to the agenda.

Sewers 237. The City will supervise the planning, building and changes in sewers, drainage lines and ditches; maintain toilets, urinals, rest rooms and sanitary equipment; and oversee the cleaning of public rest rooms and the paving of floors, yards and open spaces.

Water installations 238. As relates to water installations erected by the City or any other public body or by a private individual for the purpose of supplying water within the City limits, the City will take the following actions:

(1) prevent waste, misuse, overuse or contamination of water for public or private use;

(2) set the number, quality, and strength of the pipes, valves, faucets, wells, pans, toilets and other containers for the carrying, supplying and gathering of water; their organization, placement and removal, renovations and repair, and rules for their use;

(3) maintain public drinking fountains and set rules for their use;

(4) arrange for measurement, meters and proper equipment for the supply of water.

(5) arrange the conditions by which water is supplied for home and other use, and also the price for water use and installation.

Hazardous occupations 241. As relates to hazardous occupations, the City will classify and regulate all occupations or businesses which are likely to damage the public health or to be a source of danger to the public, or for some other reason should be regulated for the public good.

Sanitation, public health and comfort 242. As relates to sanitation, public health and public comfort, the City will take the following actions:

(1) take steps necessary to prevent or remove nuisances, and will be responsible for testing necessary to determine what are existing nuisances;

(2) organize garbage and rubbish removal from every house and determine fees for such removal;

(3) enact laws relating to testing, organization, maintenance, cleaning, and emptying of sewers, drains, toilets, sewage channels, culverts, channels, and sanitary equipment;

(4) place and maintain public garbage cans and other receptacles for the collection of garbage, and maintain them in a manner which will not constitute a public nuisance;

(5) place and maintain public bathrooms that are built in a way that will not constitute a public nuisance;

(6) be responsible for sweeping and cleaning public streets;

(7) prevent the accumulation of garbage in public or private places that would pose a danger to public health and take action to remove any nuisance from sewers or drains, both public and private, or from any other source;

(8) prevent infection of water channels, or wells, and prevent the throwing of garbage on the banks of water channels, or by the opening of wells, likely to cause their contamination;

(9) prevent the use of channels meant for the drainage of rainwater from contamination by sewage or water flushed from toilets, and forbid the installation of drains without permission;

(10) set rules for inspection of buildings and homes to clarify the level of sanitation and to take measures to destroy rodents.

Authority to promulgate bylaws 250. A city council is authorized to promulgate bylaws in order to allow the city to carry out the actions it is required or authorized to do according to this Ordinance or any other law.