|INTRODUCTION | JORDAN RIFT VALLEY | GULF OF AQABA | SOUTH EAST MEDITERRANEAN | ISRAEL PROJECTS|
| The Jordan Rift Valley (JRV) is an element of a great rift which extends from Syria to the Red Sea and continues through a large portion of Eastern Africa. Riparian population groups in the JRV include Palestinians, Israelis and Jordanians. At its southern extremity, the JRV connects with Egypt and Saudi Arabia. The JRV has traditionally been a North-South transport corridor, and is crossed by important land routes in the East-West direction.
The area under discussion for integrated development extends from south of Lake Tiberias (Sea of Galilee) to the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat. It includes a series of distinctive geographic sections:
Population distribution is directly proportional to the availability of water resources within the valley, with a high concentration in the area north of the Dead Sea.
1.1. Regional Collaboration and the Integrated Development of the JRV
The JRV has been designated as a special development area and, as a result of a tri-lateral initiative between the United States, Jordan and Israel, the JRV Steering Committee was formed to develop a master plan for the integrated economic development of the JRV subregion. For planning purposes, this sub-region includes the Dead Sea, Southern Ghors, Wadi Araba and the area north of the Gulf of Aqaba. The aim of collaborative development in the sub-region is to consolidate economic integration through the provision of critical infrastructure and services to promote private sector investment.
The JRV coordinated development effort is being managed by a joint steering committee headed by US government representatives. The World Bank is serving as a facilitator for conducting the various studies undertaken within the framework of the project. The Italian Government has provided US $3.2 million for a comprehensive second stage study which was implemented by the Harza JRV Group and completed in August 1997. This study includes a Master Plan for integrated development of the JRV.
The following diagram illustrates the Master Plan and the collaborative nature of the planning and project selection process.
1.2.The Vision and Development Strategy of the JRV
The JRVs comparative advantages provide a basis for further development of economic activities. As a zone linking Jordan, Israel and the Palestinian Authority, the JRV constitutes both an important corridor and shared resource base for economic development. Integrated development of the JRV is centered around three principal themes:
The Changing Specialized Functions of the JRV
Source: Harza, Jordan Rift Valley Integrated Development Study: Master Plan, August 1997.
The majority of development projects for the JRV have cross-border implications that highlight the benefits made possible by peace between Israel and Jordan. Development planning is for the coming quartcentury, to the year 2020.Development projects take into consideration possible impacts on employment generation as well as the affect of development on the environment. Incremental population increase until the year 2020 for the entire area is estimated at between 350-500 thousand people. Incremental primary and secondary employment arising from the development program is estimated at between 110-146 thousand jobs. Implied employment growth rates are estimated to range between 3.7-4.5% per year.
Spatial Planning Strategy
Given the diverse nature of the JRV, no single spatial strategy can apply to the entire development area. New areas of urban growth as well as centers of economic activity will be developed. The strategy undertaken in the development program recognizes decisions regarding the location of these new centers will have implications for areas outside the immediate area.
The preferred spatial strategy adopted in the development programme includes:
1.3. Environmental Considerations
The JRV area north of and around the Dead Sea has demonstrated what can be done in a relatively well endowed resource environment, but it also shows the influence of a declining resource base. In general terms, a direct relationship exists between economic potential and resource endowment, particularly water.
Quality water is clearly the most critical resource in the JRV. Water sources in the JRV include surface supplies derived from the Yarmouk River and the nahals and wadis draining from the upper catchments to the east and west springs, usually associated with fault lines and underground aquifers. Most surface water is abstracted from the Yarmouk River. The Zarqa River supplies about 25% of supply and the remainder is collected from seven additional side wadis. Fresh water is also transferred by pipeline from the Sea of Galilee in Israel direct into the King Abdullah Canal (KAC) under agreements reached at the Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace. The flow in the Jordan itself, once a major water resource, has been seriously reduced. It is highly polluted and is generally unsuitable for irrigation or potable water supplies.
Land constitutes another environmental constraint. Natural or geological erosion is a continuing process in the JRV, especially in the eastern wadis. To a certain extent, the removal of vegetation in the upper catchments of the higlands, both east and west, has increased the intensity of runoff water and added to the severity of erosion. Dams in the side wadis have attenuated flood flow and erosional debris is now deposited within the reservoir area. In addition overgrazing and removal of vegetation for fuel wood has increased the instability of sideslopes. Construction activities, roads, dams, and potable water pumping stations have resulted in erosion and left scars on the landscape which will take time to recover, given the dry climate. Wind erosion occurs locally and is minimized by agricultural activities. Soil salinity and nutrient imbalance has increased markedly in the JRV.
Six environmental divisions can be identified:
The JRV lies within a zone of geological instability. Historically earthquake events have been recorded regularly e.g. the severe devastation of Pella in 746 AD. However, the JRV is not particularly active.
Environmental Assessment and Management
The projects evaluated for the JRV development programme take into consideration anticipated environmental impact. Environmental strategy has three main thrusts: protection of JRV resources, promotion of re-utilization of resources and programs to rehabilitate degraded areas.
In general positive environmental impacts relate to human issues and are concentrated in areas proposed for urbanization in the Jordan Valley, East Dead Sea region and Eilat-Aqaba. In general, expected negative impacts on the environment resulting from projects examined relatively are few:
A preliminary framework for and Environmental Management Plan (EMP) has been prepared. A detailed environmental profile has been compiled, preliminary environmental assessment for all proposed projects has been conducted and a preliminary environmental monitoring and evaluation system has been established. The EMP also includes recommendations for environmental coordination, a proposed Environmental Awareness Program for the JRV and suggestions for bi-lateral institutional arrangements and initiatives for the adoption of mutually acceptable environmental standards and legislation.
JRV Integrated Development Study Master Plan
| 1.4. The Master Plan and its Core Projects
The Master Plan is an informal advisory planning document that is designed to perform five key functions:
Core project components consist of short-term (completion within five years) and long term projects. These are essentially public sector projects which will facilitate the development of the JRV by providing leverage for stimulating private sector investment. The project portfolio selected contains both hardware and software projects, including studies and research projects, and programs aimed at promoting collaborative development planning.
Total core investments identified for the public and private sectors for the short term are estimated at $.8 billion, while long-term investments come to $5.8 billion (see table below). Emphasis is placed on developing the water sector. Short term projects for this sector include water storage and conveyance systems in the Jordan Valley and Southern Ghors region.
The industrial sector plays an important role in the short term development program, with public sector investment channeled towards the creation of production and logistic related infrastructure.