Iran is a regime that is susceptible to pressure. It’s been exposed for what it is. It tyrannizes its own people.

Deputy FM Danny Ayalon on ABC (Australian) AM radio (29 Sept 2009):

The dilemma has passed over to the Iranians, and it’s up to them to decide whether to stop, voluntarily and willingly, their entire nuclear program and missile testing or pay the price.

FM Liberman interviews on Israel Radio (26-27 Sept 2009):

Q: How surprised are we by the revelation that Iran has a second nuclear facility?

FM Liberman: We aren’t surprised. We have been saying for a long time that Iran is striving to achieve nuclear weapons. I think that since the 1990’s Iran’s intentions have been clear to us. Anyone who has expertise in the nuclear field says there is no doubt whatsoever that this is a facility for military purposes, not for peaceful energy.

No one has any doubts now, and, accordingly, what we saw yesterday [Friday, 25 September] was unprecedented – the President of the United States, the President of France and the Prime Minister of Britain all gave very clear messages.

Q: Could it be too late, that they suddenly understand something that they didn’t understand before, that we did?

FM Liberman: I think that everyone understood. But no one wanted to see the truth, to admit the truth, everyone tried to appease that crazy regime. There is always the desire, instead of confrontation, to stall for time – maybe we’ll be able to persuade them, talk to them. I think we missed an opportunity in 2001, our last opportunity to take care of the Iranian issue, like we did in Iraq. Now, we’re in another place.

We have been constantly sounding a warning; everyone tried to escape responsibility, run away from reality, but apparently the facts are now so hard that it is no longer possible.

I think it is a mistake to relate to Iran only from the nuclear aspect. Putting aside Israel, Iran is involved in Lebanon and Iraq, supports global terror, and is also involved in places like Eritrea and Somalia. Then, there is the attempt to deny the Holocaust and to deny Israel’s right to exist. For all these reasons, Iran is not just a problem for the State of Israel, it is a global problem.

The question is – how will the West react? Beyond all the declarations and talk, is there enough determination and political will in the West to act against Iran?

Q: What does that mean – more sanctions, or a military strike?

FM Liberman: We believe that harsh sanctions from the whole world, including Russia and China, are definitely enough to choke Iran’s nuclear program. However, as greater and wiser people, including David Miliband, have said, all options are still on the table. But, first of all, there has to be recognition that the Iranians are deceiving everyone all the time, and hard, tough decisions have to be made. We hope that at the round of talks scheduled to begin on 1 October, everyone will come resolved to truly restrain and stop the Iranians.

Q: Are you afraid of a surprise attack tomorrow?

FM Liberman: They are also developing long-range missiles, but I definitely believe that we are ready for any development. I’m not worried about tomorrow, not at all. Israel is ready for any development. And the most important development, perhaps, is that, for the first time, there is a change, at least in rhetoric, of all the world leaders with regard to the Iranian issue, including the rhetoric of the Russian and Chinese leaders.

Concerning the US, France, and Britain, we heard one message from the three heads of state, a very clear message that we haven’t heard until now. Regarding the Russians and the Chinese, for the first time we heard, after Iran’s revelation, very clear things, that they are demanding all the details…A Russian expert said there is no doubt that this is a military reactor. For the first time the message from the Russians and the Chinese was completely different.

Q: How does this change the picture from Israel’s perspective?

FM Liberman: I think it makes it a lot easier for us. We’ve had quite a few differences of opinion; we remember the report two years ago in which all of the intelligence agencies in the United States concluded that there was no proof and it wasn’t clear whether they [the Iranians] are developing [nuclear] capacity or not. At least now this controversy has been resolved completely and, accordingly, the powers must draw conclusions. The message that we heard yesterday and today is unequivocal – Iran is not just Israel’s problem.

Address by PM Netanyahu to the UN General Assembly (24 Sept 2009):

This Iranian regime is fueled by an extreme fundamentalism that burst onto the world scene three decades ago after lying dormant for centuries. In the past thirty years, this fanaticism has swept the globe with a murderous violence and cold-blooded impartiality in its choice of victims. It has callously slaughtered Moslems and Christians, Jews and Hindus, and many others. Though it is comprised of different offshoots, the adherents of this unforgiving creed seek to return humanity to medieval times.

Wherever they can, they impose a backward regimented society where women, minorities, gays or anyone not deemed to be a true believer is brutally subjugated. The struggle against this fanaticism does not pit faith against faith nor civilization against civilization.

It pits civilization against barbarism, the 21st century against the 9th century, those who sanctify life against those who glorify death.

The most urgent challenge facing this body is to prevent the tyrants of Tehran from acquiring nuclear weapons. Are the member states of the United Nations up to that challenge? Will the international community confront a despotism that terrorizes its own people as they bravely stand up for freedom? 

Will it take action against the dictators who stole an election in broad daylight and gunned down Iranian protesters who died in the streets choking in their own blood? Will the international community thwart the world’s most pernicious sponsors and practitioners of terrorism?

Above all, will the international community stop the terrorist regime of Iran from developing atomic weapons, thereby endangering the peace of the entire world? 

The people of Iran are courageously standing up to this regime. People of goodwill around the world stand with them, as do the thousands who have been protesting outside this hall. Will the United Nations stand by their side? The jury is still out on the United Nations, and recent signs are not encouraging. Rather than condemning the terrorists and their Iranian patrons, some here have condemned their victims.

PM Netanyahu in NBC interview (23 Sept 2009):

Every country reserves the right to defend itself, and we’re no exception. But Iran’s acquisition or development of nuclear weapons is a threat to everyone. I mean, it’s the major terror- sponsoring state of our time, and it could give those nuclear weapons to terrorists or give them a nuclear umbrella, which will bring terrorism beyond our wildest dreams to levels that are unimaginable.

We just had a scare here in Manhattan. Just imagine terrorists with nuclear bombs. It makes this development so dangerous that it should not be merely Israel, but the entire world that unites to prevent this outcome.

And let me say one thing. I don’t know if they’ll pass it through the U.N., through the Security Council, but this is the time to act with what Hillary Clinton called crippling sanctions. And the Iranian regime is vulnerable. It’s economically vulnerable. It’s politically extremely vulnerable for a simple reason. The Iranian people hate it. They detest this medieval backward regime that is gunning them down, you know, they are choking in their blood on the sidewalks protesting for freedom.

This is the time to apply pressure against this criminal regime. And even if the U.N. Security Council can’t get its act together, the leading powers of the day can put enormous pressure on Iran, especially when it comes to imported petroleum products, what we call in simple language gasoline.

PM Netanyahu in interview with Charlie Rose (24 Sept 2009):

Iran poses certainly a great danger to Israel, Charlie, but it represents an enormous danger to the Middle East and to the world. This is the premier sponsor of terrorists.

I’ve spoken about this issue with all world leaders, and I think that it’s important that everyone understand that Iran with nuclear weapons is a danger to us all. Can you imagine, can you imagine Iran that supplies terrorists with rockets and many other things? It would give them a nuclear umbrella or worse, actually gave them nuclear weapons. 

I think the Iranian regime is a lot weaker than people think. Overwhelmingly the Iranian people have shown remarkable courage. They stood up for freedom in a truly inspirational courage. 

If you have pressures, significant economic pressures on this regime, particularly the importation of gasoline, this could make the regime, might force the regime to choose whether it wants to advance the nuclear program or risk its own viability. It’s not been put to that test.
Hillel the Elder, one of the great sages of Jewish history, who said 2,000 years ago, "If not now, when?" So I say, echoing Hillel, if not now, when are you going to apply those crippling sanctions? The time to do that is now. 

And I don’t believe that the Iranian people will coalesce around a regime it detests. I think the opposite will happen. I think they’ll applaud this pressure, because they want to be relieved from this medieval regime, this violent theocracy that is oppressing them and threatening everyone else. I think you know from your visits in the region that every, just about every Arab leader will applaud. And so many, so many others around will applaud the effective imposition of sanctions on Iran. And I think time is short and there’s a lot of work to do.

PM Netanyahu on Fox News interview (22 Sept 2009):

Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu: What I heard from President Obama is he doesn’t want to have Iran just dawdle away the time. He understands. He said that there has to be a clear and finite resolve within a given amount of time to see if the Iranians are serious about stopping the nuclear program.

Reporter: But you don’t have a new date.

PM Netanyahu: Well, put it this way – I think that I heard clarity. Now the question of course is whether Iran understands this clarity and what’s most important is that if it doesn’t, that the international community with or without the Security Council, slap very forceful sanctions on Iran because this regime is very vulnerable. It is not as strong as people think. It doesn’t have the support of the Iranian people. There’s a lot of pressure that could be applied to make it stop the enrichment of nuclear material.

Reporter: How long can Israel wait for the world to act before Israel has to act unilaterally against the Iranian nuclear program?

PM Netanyahu: Brett, I’m not going to deal in hypotheticals although you want me to. I suppose any country has and reserves the right for self defense and Israel is no exception but I think the specter of Iran arming itself with nuclear weapons and possibly giving it to terrorists or giving them…
Reporter: You think they want a nuclear weapon?

PM Netanyahu: … sufficiently troublesome for the international community to get its act together and act to stop this from happening.

Reporter: You’re convinced they want a nuclear weapon.

PM Netanyahu: Yes I am.

Reporter: Just how long, do you think, from Israel’s perspective, would it take Iran to get one?

PM Netanyahu:. Well, it’s getting shorter, because they’re amassing more enriched material.

Reporter: I mean some of the bullet points lately of stories coming out seem like in months. Is that possible?

PM Netanyahu: What I think is possible is for the international community to make Iran reconsider its blatant flaunting of international commitments and international obligations. It’s possible to apply pressure on them. This regime has been unmasked. I mean that a few months ago I would have told you that seventy five percent, maybe eighty percent of the Iranian people detest this regime – this theocratic dictatorship and you would have said, well, well maybe yes, maybe not, but the Iranian people show unbelievable courage – going out there in the streets again and again and saying we want our freedom. We don’t want this medieval doctrinaire despotism controlling our lives and now you see it and that when you see that, you ask, do you want – do you want these people to have nuclear weapons and the answer is no, none of us do – the Iranian people don’t and the sooner pressure is applied, the sooner that that catastrophic development would be averted.

Reporter: How concerned are you about Russia selling S-300 anti-aircraft missiles to Iran?

PM Netanyahu: Well I can tell you what I’ve said in open forums and to leaders all over the world. I think that arming Iran with advanced weapons would give the regime -that regime – the feeling that in fact they’re immune to pressures – they’re immune to the statement that President Obama has made repeatedly that all options are on the table. If they think that all options are not on the table it will be that much harder to make the sanctions work so I think that for the sake of peace and for the sake of security, these weapons should not be given or sold to Iran.

Reporter: Former National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski is quoted this week about a possible Israel strike on Iran – that “the US is not impotent here and that possibly preventing Israel from bombing Iran”, this is what he said quote, “They have to fly over airspace in Iraq. If they fly over, you go and confront them. They have a choice of turning back or not.”  Your reaction to that.

PM Netanyahu:  Well, I’m not going to respond to a hypothetical on a hypothetical.

Reporter: Okay but how about this question:  Are you 100% confident that if you have to act unilaterally, that you will have the backing of the US government?

PM Netanyahu: No, I have nothing to add about not adding and responding to a hypothetical of a hypothetical of a third hypothetical.

Reporter: Okay, how much cooperation and consent…

PM Netanyahu:  I think it’s a worldwide interest and an American and joint American Israeli interest to make sure that Iran does not get nuclear weapons.

Reporter: How much consent or full cooperation will Israel need from the United States? 

PM Netanyahu: I think the question is how much cooperation the international community is going to muster among its leading members to make sure that these options are not really necessary because there are sufficiently strong, economic, political, diplomatic pressures that could be applied to Iran and the stronger they are, the less severe the measures needed to stop the Iranian nuclear program.

Reporter: Along that line is it clear to you that Russia and/or China will never sign on to meaningful economic sanctions against Iran?  A lot of critics of those two countries believe that that’s the case.

PM Netanyahu:  I don’t know. I don’t know. I hope that’s not the case. I hope that they understand that their own security – their own interest would be impaired if they just take a – not a long-term view, just a middle-term or even a short-term view of their most basic interest to have the Ayatollah regime arming itself with the weapons of mass death is something that would jeopardize their interests and everyone’s interest so A) I hope they view this along these lines and B) I think that it’s possible to act in a multinational way without necessarily the Security Council. I hope they mobilize the Security Council for this necessary action. But even if they don’t, we’ve seen time and again that if the major powers in the world – not all of them, but most of them act in unison that it’s possible to apply very strong pressure, and first and foremost economic pressure, on a country like Iran.

PM Netanyahu in CNN interview (22 Sept 2009):

WOLF BLITZER, CNN ANCHOR: The Russian president, Dmitry Medvedev, told our Fareed Zakaria the other day that he had an assurance from the Israeli president, Shimon Peres, that Israel has no intention of attacking Iran. Is that true?

NETANYAHU: Well, I’m not going to deal with hypotheticals. I think the important thing is to recognize that Iran’s ambitions to acquire or develop nuclear weapons is a threat, not only to Israel, but to the entire world. Remember, this is the country that sponsored terrorism worldwide. And imagine what would happen if these terrorists had a patron that that gave them a nuclear umbrella, or, worse, actually gave them the nuclear weapon.

I think that these are catastrophic consequences. And it’s the interests of the entire international community to make sure this doesn’t happen.

BLITZER: So, are you willing to repeat what you have been quoted in the Israeli press as saying, that "all options" for Israel are on the table right now?

NETANYAHU: I’m willing to say what President Obama has said, namely, that all options are on the table is a position we support.

BLITZER: Have you been concerned at all about the Obama administration’s diplomatic initiative in trying to reach out to Iran to see if that will secure some results?

NETANYAHU: I have spoken to President Obama several times about this. And he assured me that the goal of all his activities, diplomatic and otherwise, is to ensure that Iran does not develop nuclear weapons. And I think the goal is what counts. And, increasingly, I think people understand in Washington and certainly  in Washington and elsewhere, in the major capitals, that the problem of Iran’s acquiring nuclear weapons threatens everyone. It threatens world peace in a way that very few events could possibly threaten it.

I’m hopeful and I would like to believe that the international community understands that Iran has to be pressed strongly. There are ways of pressing this regime right now, because it’s weak. It’s weaker than people think. It doesn’t enjoy the support of its own people.

BLITZER: How much time is there, Mr. Prime Minister?

NETANYAHU: Whatever time is there, Wolf, it’s getting shorter, because Iran is moving ahead.

But this is a regime that is susceptible to pressure. It’s been exposed for what it is. It tyrannizes its own people. The Iranian people detest this regime, as has been plainly evident in the recent election fraud. But, equally, I think that Iran is susceptible because its economy is susceptible. And the time for pressure is now, with or without talks.

BLITZER: Would you act unilaterally, without U.S. support?

NETANYAHU: Well, there you go again asking a hypothetical question. I would like to believe that the United States and the major powers of the world understand that this threat, that this danger threatens them as well. And you know what? From everything that I have seen and heard, speaking to President Obama, speaking to President Sarkozy this afternoon as well, speaking to many of the major leaders of the world, I stand by that assessment.

Iran is certainly a grave threat to Israel, but it’s a grave threat to international peace. It’s a grave threat to America and to everyone else.

Interview with PM Netanyahu on ABC News (Sept 22, 2009):

CHARLES GIBSON: Mr. Prime Minster, earlier this year, you and President Obama were in agreement, giving Iran until the end of the year to negotiate. Is that still the timeframe?

NETANYAHU: I don’t want to discuss whether we need another week or another month. The crucial question is, what’s the goal? And the president assured me time and again that the goal is to prevent Iran from developing a nuclear weapon. And I think that’s the right goal. There is a growing awareness in Washington, I believe in European capitals and elsewhere, that the development or acquisition of Iran of nuclear weapons is something that endangers world peace.

Iran is the major sponsor of world terrorism. Now, imagine what terrorism could be if the terrorists had a patron that gave them a nuclear umbrella, or worse, if that patron actually gave them nuclear weapons. That’s a nightmare scenario, and we all have to ensure that it doesn’t happen.

GIBSON: Our intelligence services, your intelligence services, struggle with the issue of how close they are to having nuclear weapons and how close they are to delivering them. How close do you think they are?

NETANYAHU: They’re getting closer. There’s no question about that.

GIBSON: And what does that mean? The Iran government right now is in turmoil. Does that make them more dangerous or less?

NETANYAHU: I think this regime is a lot weaker than people thing, and I think the civilized countries are lot stronger than they tend to think about themselves. This regime tyrannizes its own people, guns them down when they peacefully protest for freedom.

So, the application of external pressure, I think, would not coalesce the people of Iran with the government. It will actually coalesce them against the government, because they truly detest this regime. So, I think Iran is susceptible to pressure today. It’s highly dependent on the importation of refined petroleum. There are other things that could be done to weaken this regime, and they should be done quickly. If not now, when?

GIBSON: But my question is, do you think the weak government in Iran, to use your term, becomes more dangerous or less?

NETANYAHU: I think that it becomes more dangerous if it becomes stronger. And it becomes stronger if it develops nuclear weapons. The experience of such regimes is that once they pass a threshold, then you can have even a primitive society – and there’s one in Asia – that is almost an anthill society developing nuclear weapons and all of a sudden it becomes important like China or Japan – but much more dangerous. And I don’t think Japan or China are dangerous.

To have the ayatollah regime acquiring nuclear weapons, no matter how weak they are today, tomorrow they will be a hell of a lot stronger. And that is something that would threaten the peace of the world. It should not be allowed to happen.

GIBSON: You say they are close, in your mind. Is there a point where it becomes impossible for Israel to live in the shadow of a nuclear Iran?

NETANYAHU: I’m not going to deal in hypotheticals. Of course, every country reserves the right of self-defense and Israel is no exception.

But as I’m pointing out today, the development of nuclear weapons by Iran would pose an enormous problem to the stability of the Middle East, to the flow of oil from the Middle East, to the security of my country, to the possibility of having terrorists enjoy a nuclear umbrella or having – or receiving, actually, nuclear weapons from this Iranian regime.

There are so many reasons, endless reasons why this should not be allowed to happen. And it’s time the international community acted in unison to make sure that it doesn’t happen.

GIBSON: But you say they are close. Doesn’t that take it out of the realm of the hypothetical?

NETANYAHU: I think there is a growing understanding in the major capitals of the world – virtually in all of them – that it’s important, that it’s an international issue, an international concern to make sure that Iran does not develop nuclear weapons.

GIBSON: The international community has been reluctant to impose sanctions. You went to Moscow earlier in the year to talk about supplying air defense weapons to Iran. Do you really think that the rest of the world community is now any closer to putting the kind of pressure that you discussed against Iran on them?

NETANYAHU: Well, I’m not going to refer to press speculations about this or that visit. But I’ll tell you what I say to all the world leaders that I meet, including in today’s meetings and the meeting I had with President Sarkozy. And that is that because time is getting shorter, because Iran is moving ahead to develop nuclear weapons, the international community has to act in a much tougher way.

And I think the best thing to do is to apply what I think Secretary of State Hillary Clinton called crippling sanctions on Iran. Believe me, the regime is susceptible to it. I think people know what the nature, the true nature of this tyranny is about. And the application of this pressure might do the job. The sooner we do it, the sooner we’ll find out and the less will be the need to take stronger actions.

DM Barak after meeting with US Secy of Defense Gates (Washington DC, 21 Sept 2009):

"The sharp sanctions imposed on Iran must be limited in time. Israel has not removed any option from the table. Israel means what it says, and recommends that other countries act likewise."

Chief of the IDF General Staff, Lt. Gen. Gabi Ashkenazi interview on Israel Army Radio (21 Sept 2009):

"The possibility of Iran becoming a nuclear power is a threat not only to the State of Israel, but for the Middle East and the entire free world. We all understand that the best way of coping is through international sanctions… I hope that Iran will understand this. I think that if not, Israel has the right to defend itself, and all options are open. The IDF’s working premise is that we have to be prepared for that possibility, and that is exactly what we are doing."

FM Liberman at meeting with Serbian FM Jeremic (Belgrade, 16 Sept 2009):

We discussed in length the threat that Iran poses to the stability and security in the Middle East as well as in the whole World. Iran’s pursuit of nuclear weapons is a global threat and should be dealt with by the international community in a serious manner. Our view is that doing "business as usual" with Iran is sending a wrong message to the leaders in Teheran, who bluntly ignore the international will and norms.

Interview with Dep FM Ayalon on Fox News (15 Sept 2009):

Israel is quite capable of defending itself. But certainly, if Iran becomes nuclear, it becomes a threat, an existential threat not just to Israel but for the entire globe, because its program is such, you know, big in scope with global reach, coupled with very dangerous, radical policy that they have. And they have professed ambitions which they do not even bother to hide, which is really to turn around the Middle East to an Iranian hegemony, to go even beyond.

And we know that they are very aggressive in trying to penetrate, whether it’s in Latin America. And today, unfortunately, they have a friend and ally like Hugo Chavez of Venezuela. They’re trying also to push in Africa. And also, we know how they are supporting very actively terror organizations, whether it’s the Hizbullah, Hamas, Islamic jihad.

So if Iran, God forbid, becomes nuclear, I think the world order will not be as we know it. The danger will be really something which cannot be imagined. And Iran must be stopped, and I believe it can be stopped.

Time is not on our side. And this is not particularly Israel but the entire international community. I want to believe that Russia will continue to be a very responsible country. And you know, they do have a commitment to prevent Iran from becoming nuclear. Certainly such a sophisticated defense system will make Iran much more bolder and encourage them to continue what they’re doing now. 

I’m not aware of the fact that they are indeed selling missiles to the Iranians. We have been engaged with very intense talks with the Russians, so was the American administration here. And I hope we will not be in a position where we really have to deal with such a real dangerous development which can only go south if Iran indeed will have the capabilities to defend its nuclear installations and feel, as I say, impugned from any consequence that should be emitted to her.

But also, I wanted to emphasize here, there is a very easy way to stop the Iranians if indeed the world will come together. Iran, with all the bravado, is a very vulnerable country. We have witnessed its vulnerability in the realm of politics and the social areas after the elections of there and the brutal clash of these riots.

But also economically, they will not be able to sustain effective sanctions more than a few weeks. And once there is a price tag to their flagrant violations of all the commitments and the demands from the international community, I believe then they will have the dilemma and not us how to stop them.

And I do believe that this ayatollah in Tehran will not want to collapse or risk their well-being. So this is why the threat of sanctions, I can guarantee you, will be very effective if indeed the international community can come together and make this happen.

From briefing on statement by PM Netanyahu to the Knesset Foreign Affairs and Defense Committee (14 Sept 2009):

"I believe that now is the time to start harsh sanctions against Iran – if not now then when? These harsh sanctions can be effective.
I believe that the international community can act effectively.
The Iranian regime is weak, the Iranian people would not rally around the regime if they felt for the first time that there was a danger to their regime – and this would be a new situation."

Excerpts from Reuters interview with Dan Meridor, Deputy Prime Minister abd Minister of Intelligence and Atomic Energy (12 Sept 2009):


The time is now. There is no more time to waste, and that’s not only the Israeli perspective, it’s much more general.


I’m not speaking of military action. I don’t want to give any word that would be misinterpreted. I intentionally put this issue in its broader context. Of course there is a special case in Israel because Iranian leaders say, not only (President Mahmoud) Ahmadinejad, that Israel is not legitimate and should not exist, and one sees the building up of weapons, not to speak of the meaningful involvement in terror all over the place.

One should not close one’s eyes but we are in a way fortunate that this is not only Israel’s problem.


Our policy is a good one and it worked well. And we are known to be quite a responsible country. We are in a unique position. There are formulas we use all the time (to address this issue). I will not say what we have, if we have or we don’t have (nuclear weapons), but the fact is that the alarm in the Arab world is related to the fear that Iran may have it.


It’s not in the distant future. When they decide exactly this or exactly that is a good question but it’s not the main question. The trend is clear and if you want to be an owner of nuclear weapons or have the capability of being a nuclear power it changes the balance of power.


I can’t say that, because the other option didn’t work either… If it works, it works. What I think we look for is the result, whether you do it with soft spoken language or with a heavy stick. I’d rather do it with a positive (method), but that doesn’t always work.


It’s important there is an understanding, a will, a capability, if all join hands, to enforce a concerted intensive action — which is not military action, I speak of political and economic measures — that may be taken if the Russians and Chinese can get on board.


If there is no perception of a concerted effort the other countries who are concerned with the possibility of a nuclear Iran could develop their own in the meantime… Then you will find a different world, one harder for a superpower to manage.


I don’t think Russia has an interest in a nuclear Iran. Maybe they want to be considered as a partner, not to be told what to do. I am not for or against the Russians. I am saying they are important elements. Their have an important role in the world. Communism might be dead. Russia is not.