Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
 Chapter 4 Israel Projects Presentation: Infrastructure
2. Sea and Air Ports
 Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
 Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
 Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
Haifa Port and East Port Future Development
  2.1 Haifa Port Development Project

a. Background

The laying down of the Heijazit train line to Haifa (1900-1905) constituted a decisive turning point for Haifa Port, which expanded its reach up to the Jezreel Valley, Jordan Valley, across the Jordan River and to the area of Damascus. During the British Mandate period, the port became the main port in Israel, handling most of the export.

Following the establishment of Ashdod Port in the early 60s, Haifa Port was used for the transport of cargo to and from the north of the country, and for national transport of specialized cargo. The port developed and operates wharves for containers, general cargo, dry bulk, bulk in sacks, liquid bulk (including hazardous chemicals) and distillates. In addition a passenger ship terminal is in operation, which handles virtually all the passenger traffic to and from Israel.

Together with the development of the port, numerous and varied activities have developed in areas abutting on the port including Haifa Airport (and its development as an international airport), the Israel Electric Corporations existing power station (and future stations), areas of the Oil and Energy Infrastructures Company in the area of the port and alongside it, infrastructure for road and rail transportation, new business center of the lower city, tourist route in the German quarter, government campus, business center on Sderot Hahistadrut and the development of the Shemen Beach area.

The development of peace in our region, with the long term view of the impact of this development on the port development, highlights the potential of converting the ports of Haifa and Ashdod into Hub ports. The short overland distance between the centers of activity in Jordan and the Israels Mediterranean ports gives a clear advantage to conveyance of Jordanian cargo, which will pass to and from Jordan via rail or truck. Annulment of the Arab boycott on ships will facilitate the conversion of Haifa and Ashdod ports to transit ports through which cargo to neighboring ports – Cyprus, Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece and others will be dispatched. The far-fetched possibility of peace with Syria, Iraq and other Arab countries will considerably increase the volume of cargo passing through Israels Mediterranean ports.

Haifa Port has a relative advantage over Ashdod Port as a port to serve cargo of countries east of Israel due to the far less congested transportation system compared with that in the center of the country, and due to the topographical advantage of convenient rail/transportation connections.

b. Physical Data and Projected Cargo Traffic in Haifa Port

Length of wharves in the existing port:

Container wharf – 900 meters long
General cargo wharf – Kishon Port – 600 meters long
General cargo and passenger wharves – West Port – 1,600 meters long

Operational areas in the existing port:

Containers – 400 thousand sq. m.
General cargo – 300 thousand sq. m.
Liquid chemicals – 150 thousand sq. m.

According to Israel Ports and Railways Authority forecasts, in the year 2000 some 14.2 million tons are expected to pass through the port, excluding fuel (compared with 10.3 million tons in 1994), out of which 8.2 tons will be containers (780 thousand TEUs – twenty-foot equivalent units – compared with 430 thousand TEUs in 1994). Fuel exports in 1994 came to approximately 2.8 million ton.

In this forecast it is assumed that Haifa Port will not convey coal to the planned coal-fired power station in Haifa Bay, the establishment of which is uncertain. The increase in cargo points to a substantial growth in containers, and other general cargo, which require large scale investments.

Cargo Traffic Forecast for Haifa Port by Year 2010


Traffic in effect 1994

cast 2000 regular

cast 2000 planning

cast 2010

Dry cargo in containers





Other dry cargo in bulk





General non-containerized cargo





General cargo in containers





Total cargo





Containers (thousand TEU)





c. Haifa Port Development Plan

Main objectives of the plan

  • To adapt Haifa Port, in the cargo field, to the operational requirements, to ensure a high and economical level of service, i.e. up to one hour wait on average for ships;
  • To expand the port into a passenger port;
  • To ensure accessibility of land transportation system (roads and trains) to Haifa Port;
  • To integrate the port systems into the metropolitan areas and surrounding systems.
  • To develop back lot areas for commercial, industrial, port services and other purposes, suited to the operations of the back lot and neighboring areas.
  • To ensure environmental protection, quality of life and maximal safety.

Development requirements and development plan

The port system is meant to address the needs of the coming 30 years and beyond. In providing a competitive service, over the coming years the port must adapt itself to the structural and demand changes of all the vessels docking in the port.

The port development was planned for:

  • Container ships – (Post Panamax): 300 m long, 40 m wide, required water depth 14 m.
  • Ships with loading capacity 120,000 ton: 280 m long, 42 m wide, required water depth 16 meter.
  • Coal tankers – loading capacity 150,000 ton: 310 m long, 42 m wide, required water depth 19 m.

Based on these data, the main characteristics of Mediterranean ports are:

  • Established required water depth at the various wharves and in the entry canal;
  • Distance of 250m between wharves;
  • Diameter of ship turning circle in the port – 600 m.

The development plan defines the future port systems as addressing the development needs of the year 2020, with each development stage determined by projected demand. Three main components are included in the port development:

  • breakwaters
  • wharf system and their designation>
  • development of operational areas.

The port development of Haifa East is to be completed in two main stages:

Stage One – Haifa East B – by the year 2000. An additional substage will be the enlargement of the chemical terminal and addition of operational area (first part of Haifa East C).

Stage Two – Haifa East C and D – timetable to be determined in the future, subject to the demand for port services.

In the overall development plan for the final stage, the total length of operational wharves is 6,500 m ( plus 900 m length of intermediate wharves) and the total operational area is 2,450 thousand sq. m..

In Stage One of the plan – Haifa East B – all the West Port wharves (1,600 m long) are designated for the passenger terminal and Dagon wharves, with the following addition to the existing: 700 m length of container wharves, 1,200 length of general cargo wharves, 700 thousand sq. m. of operational area for containers, 150 thousand sq. m. of operational area for general cargo, and 80 thousand sq. m. of operational area for a chemical terminal.

In order to develop Stage One the existing breakwaters will have to be lengthened by 500 meters.

Upon completion of this stage the container terminal will operate in the Haifa East A (existing) area and the western area of Haifa East B, and container conveyance in the West Port will cease.

The West Port will serve as the designated port for passenger vessels and will be integrated into the urban network. The integration will be accomplished by introducing several urban routes/centers into the port area which will serve as a city/tourist zone. This decision represents a real change in the development of the city of Haifa.

Transportation infrastructure

The road and railway network constitutes an important component in the cargo transportation chain, and the transportation system was planned with the overall view of integrating the port into the national and urban development, with the following main points:

  • Diverting heavy port traffic east, without it coming into contact with the congested inner-city traffic, via several alternate routes.
  • Providing a rapid link of the port to national/city expressways (to Kishon Road, to Road 75 – and via it east, north and south on Road 6 – to the Carmel Tunnel and to Moshe Dayan Road.)
  • Ensuring railway alignments to the different port areas
  • Re-opening Moshe Dayan Road (including a bridge over the Kishon River and to Kishon Port) as a municipal road connecting different parts of the port to outside the port.
  • Planning a system of secondary roads to serve the East Port backlot area.
  • Planning a seafront road in the West Port to serve the passenger port and adjacent structures.
  • Planning a transportation center (East Terminal), incorporating rail, private and public traffic.

Land uses for areas in and adjacent to the port

In addition to the conveyance of cargo at the wharves, in modern times employment and port service zones are developing in the port, fostering mutual business growth.

These designations combine naturally and desirably with the Free Port zones previously declared for the Haifa Port area (though yet to be enacted), in an area of 400 thousand sq. m..

The primary proposed designations for these areas are:

  • Industry relying on adjacent port services for direct supply of raw materials, or for direct export of products;
  • Industry specializing in cargo distribution, marketing and packaging;
  • Industry and services for port equipment, containers, sailing vessels, etc.;
  • Docks for repairing small vessels;
  • Specialized storage areas, including cold storage, bonded warehouses, storage for goods in transit to neighboring countries, etc.
  • Transportation centersP>
  • Tourism, commercial and resort uses in the fishing port region, including marinas for sports clubs and entertainment;
  • Commercial/business/tourism uses of areas outside the port (west of the port, Sderot Hahistadrut).


Port development necessitates the solution of several conflicts:

  • Airport

Mutual restriction of the proximity between the airport and port in terms of ship and cane heights, exchange of areas, position of the cross runway, simultaneous development.

  • Israel Electric Corporation

Alternatives of coal supply and its conveyance, cooling pipe alignment alternatives, location of sub-station, electricity corridors, and others.

  • Oil and Energy Infrastructure

Removal of the 20 Acre field, distillate dock, pipe corridors.

  • Haifa municipality/ Netivei Carmel

Municipal highways in the port area, access roads to the port, easttransportation center, integrating the West Port into the urban network, area designations and principle building rights.

d. Financing and Investment Plan

The estimated investment to complete Stage One of the development plan comes to about $ 420 million, with $ 400 million required for the final stage. The Stage One investment will be spread over approximately 6 years, and more than half the amount will be required for the second half of the period. The timetable for the investment plan will be modified in accordance with changes in terms related to the feasibility of implementing the project and/or cargo projections.

The project is to be financed by the Israel Ports and Railways Authority and by external sources.




 Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
 Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
Master Plan for Ashdod Port
  2.2 Ashdod Port Development Project

a. Background and Port Development Stages

Ashdod Port was established in 1965, and has become Israels largest port, both in terms of area and infrastructure and in terms of cargo traffic. Close to 60% of all Israels sea-borne imports and exports pass through the port.

In 1995 the Government of Israel approved the principles of the new Ashdod Port development plan – Ashdod North. Upon completion of this project, the operational area of the port will double and become more sophisticated in order to meet Israels economic challenges in the coming decade, which include:

  • To strengthen the economic development of the southern part of Israel;
  • To adapt Israels transportation infrastructure to the 2000 era;>
  • To contribute to the trend of decentralizing the population through establishing city centers in the south;
  • To develop a central and modern ocean gateway to east Mediterranean countries, to address the economic needs of peace.

Stages in developing the Port

Several stages have already been completed and include:

  • A terminal has been established for chemicals in bulk, including railway tracks, apparatus for unloading from trains into storerooms, automatic conveyance equipment to the ships and a specialized docking wharf for dry bulk ships.
  • A container yard has been established for chemicals in liquid bulk, with pipelines for loading the ships. At the same time the general cargo wharves have been expanded.
  • A terminal has been established for specialized containers, including wharves for unloading/loading, areas for container storage and conveyance equipment in the storage areas.

The port was originally planned for ships with loading capacity of 30,000 tons. The significant change in developing the port to handle larger vessels was catalyzed by the decision to unload coal at Ashdod Port, and the concurrent decision to establish the Rutenberg power station in Ashkelon.

This decision lead to the original planning of Ashdod North which entailed doubling the existing port area northward. In line with the government decision, economic feasibility was examined for conveying coal with the ensuing decision to build a coal system within the area of the existing pond without expanding it northward. Consequently wharf 9 with water depth 14 m was constructed, to allow 150,000 ton coal tankers to enter the port with overall partial loading capacity of up to 100,000 tons. The entrance canal into the port was deepened to 15 m, and a 3.1 km coal conveyor belt was built, and systems for unloading, conveying and storing coal outside the port were installed. In order to transport the coal to Ashkelon, the coal terminal was connected via railway track to the line leading to Ashkelon.

b. Operational Development at Ashdod Port

Cargo and container traffic

In 1995, 2,800 freight ships docked at Ashdod Port, which handled more than 16 million tons of cargo, including 272 thousand containers constituting some 3.3 million tons in weight. At present Ashdod Port handles close to 60% of all cargo arriving at Israels Mediterranean ports.

Development of the Port




No. workers

put /

No. cargo ships

Ton / ship

ners (000)





























* Estimate at October 1995

Passenger traffic

Passenger ships began docking at Ashdod Port in October 1975 following the Interim Peace Agreement with Egypt. 1990 saw a peak with the arrival of 227 ships, and the current rate is 140 ships per year, bringing some 120 thousand passengers.

Ashdod Port as part of the Regional system

Ashdod Port, as part of the city of Ashdod, belongs to the metropolitan area centered in Tel Aviv. The Tel Aviv metropolitan area abuts on that of Jerusalem and together they form the heart of Israel – the area which supports most economic activity and where most of the countrys population resides. The triangular shaped heart is bounded by Netanya in the north, Jerusalem in the east and Ashdod in the south. The increasing relative weight of the heart in the national economy contributed directly to the increase in activity at Ashdod Port, reflected in a consistent rise in the segment of cargo unloaded and loaded in Ashdod. At the present stage of metropolitan development, most of the industrial development is being diverted from the center of the metropolitan area to its outskirts, due to high land prices.

The conveyance of cargo through Ashdod Port and the traffic system meant to serve this activity foster a transportation hub with convenient connection to the close and distant surroundings. The proximity of the port to a rapidly developing dynamic city such as Ashdod, paves the way for a range of new possibilities both in the port and the city, in terms of attracting businesses and services, which will serve as a link between the port and the city.

The current traffic volume and shipping development trends necessitate significant expansion of the operational areas and an increase in the ratio between the operational areas and wharves. The new Master Plan of the port, which changes the existing port structure and adds the north port, is aimed at addressing these issues.

c. Ashdod Port North Development Plan

The Master Development Plan defines the future port system as having to address the development needs of the year 2020, with development stages set according to projected demand.

The port development includes three components:

  • Breakwaters
  • System of wharves and their designation
  • Development of operational areas.

The port development of Ashdod North is to be completed in two stages: Stage One – Ashdod North A by the year 2000, and Ashdod North B – the target date of which is to be determined in the future according to the demand for port services. The development plan for Ashdod North calls for the addition of 3,850 m of wharves (compared with the existing 4,000 m of wharves), 1,300 thousand sq. m. of operational area (current area is 950 thousand sq. m.), and 2,150 m of main and secondary breakwaters (the existing breakwaters are 3,100 m long). Within the framework of the development plan, wharves 7 and 9 which serve as container and coal unloading wharves respectively, will be converted into general cargo wharves, the container terminal will be moved and expanded in the area to be developed, and the coal unloading wharf will be constructed in Stage Two of the port development and will facilitate the handling of ships with loading capacity of 150,000 tons. Stage One of Ashdod North development (Ashdod North A) is to be carried out imminently and will take 5 years, the main components being:

  • Building the main breakwater its final length – 1,150 m;
  • Preparing wharves for conveyance of containers and general cargo – 1,900 m long;<
  • Developing back lot operational area – 850 thousand sq. m.

In Stage One container conveyance will be carried out in two terminals: the current terminal in the existing port and the new terminal in Ashdod North. During this stage Wharf 9, which currently conveys coal, will be converted to a general cargo wharf. Coal conveyance will be transferred from this wharf to the coal dock to be built in Ashkelon.

Already at this stage the water depth at the new wharves will permit the entry of ships with loading capacity of to 120,000 ton. The road and rail system constitutes an important component in the cargo transportation chain, and is meant to address the projected traffic volume, and facilitate the rapid conveyance of cargo to and from the port while providing several alternate traffic possibilities of transportation routes and means of transportation (trucks, trains). Transportation system planning will be completed with an overall view to integrate the port into the national and urban development.

Protecting the environment

The main environmental concern in Ashdod Port focuses on the effect of lengthening the main breakwater on the sand drift and settling patterns. In order to find the optimal solutions, several studies will be conducted in various marine fields, which will assess the impact of the physical structure of the port and will chart the course for minimizing environmental damage.


The estimated investment to complete Stage One of the port development comes to approximately $ 500 million, and for Stage Two – $ 400 million. In Stage One the investment in the main breakwater constitutes one third of the total investment. The investment is to be spread over 6 years (beginning 1995), and half the sum – about $230 million – will be required in the last two years of the project.




&#160;Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
&#160;Israel Projects Presentation- Sea and Air Ports
Master Plan for Ben-Gurion Airport
  2.3 Ben-Gurion 2000 – Israels International Airport Project

Ben-Gurion International Airport – Israels international air terminal – is about to undergo large scale renovation, which will make it comparable to and even exceed standards in the rest of the western world. Situated near Tel Aviv, the airport serves virtually all travelers entering and leaving the country by air. Furthermore, passenger volumes at Ben Gurion have been increasing dramatically, and a yearly increase of 18% since 1992 has resulted in severe congestion in the existing, outdated terminal. The Israel Airports Authority (IAA) which is responsible for running the airport, has made concerted efforts to mitigate the increasing congestion and delays, adding space wherever possible and rationing the use of facilitate.

Despite these efforts, the only solution was a long-term expansion program, and in 1993 the IAA commenced a comprehensive program to expand and modernize the airport. The Ben Gurion 2000 Project aimed at building a new gateway to Israel in time to accommodate the expected major increase in travelers (up to 12 million annual passengers) by the millennium.

b. Project Objectives

The project concept, design and strategy were determined by several goals:

  • To plan the development of Ben Gurion airport in stages, until an yearly scope of 16 million international passengers;
  • To provide users and operators with a level of service acceptable in modern airports in developed countries;
  • To allow the State of Israel to realize, through the central airport, economic activity in the spheres of tourism, export and import;
  • In an era of peace – to help promote regional and international cooperation in realms affected by the airport;
  • To plan, establish and operate the terminal area flexibly and modularly so as to cope with changes such as types of aircraft, traffic composition, etc.;
  • To finance the airport development through non-government sources;
  • To reduce as far as possible the environmental impact and to take into consideration the airports neighbors;
  • To minimize as far as possible the disruption of the current operation of the Ben Gurion airport during the construction process.

c. Concept Plan and Strategy

In order to determine the technical requirements of a new terminal facility, and to find the most operationally efficient and financially feasible terminal concept plan, the firm Leigh Fisker Associates (LFA) was enlisted, bringing to the project extensive experience in the planning and financing of large terminal projects.

The new passenger terminal is to be located on a site adjacent to the existing airfield and will be served by new access roads and a train directly linked to Israels national rail network. The plan requires that the Ayalon River, which runs through the site, be relocated. The new passenger terminal is to be flanked by new terminal support facilities. The final design configuration – a star shaped atrium with five short concourses radiating from it – provides for 38 aircraft gates with the shortest aircraft taxiing routes to all aircraft gates, and minimized passenger walking distances.

To accelerate the final architectural and engineering design process, the Ben Gurion 2000 Project was divided into five sub-projects – airside, landside, infrastructure, energy plant and river relocation – with specialized and experienced design teams selected for each sub-project. This multiple design team concept also ensured that additional design resources would be available throughout the projects life to maintain or accelerate the final design process. In addressing form and shape, the design criteria established the required interrelationships among the project components.

To monitor and accurately control project costs throughout the design process, a multiple-redundancy cost-estimating procedure was adopted. Independent cost estimates have been prepared for each sub-project at critical milestones of the design process by two independent cost-estimating firms. In addition the authority has also hired independent professional estimators for each sub-project design team.

d. Architecture

The new terminal was designed to reflect the cultural and architectural heritage of Israel. Following an international survey, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP with Karmi Architects were appointed the lead designers. Moshe Safdie/TRA, Eli First/PB and consulting engineering HRVAC were hired to execute the detailed design of the airside, infrastructure and energy plant sub-projects in line with the architectural theme.

The major project components governed by the Design Criteria are as follows;

Approach roads and parkway – a three-level curbside area, short-term, long-term, quick park and employee parking, provisions for tour buses and VIP vehicles;

Garden and garden arcades – a special site feature at the front of the terminal, creating a setting for the airport and an amenity for passengers, greeters and employees walking between the park and main terminal;

Main terminal – the airports front door, which houses ticketing, baggage, security and passport control functions, and through which passengers arrive and depart;

Airside Terminal – including the aircraft gates and departing and arriving concourses, as well as the connecting corridor between the Main Terminal and the core structure. The ramp control tower and fixed and moveable loading bridges are also included.

e. Current Status and Budget

The size of the Ben-Gurion 2000 Project has necessitated the updating of the master plan for the entire airport, which requires in-depth reviews and approvals by numerous national and regional planning agencies. Despite the lengthy process involved, the importance of the project to the economy and image of the State of Israel has given the project high priority.

The Ayalon River will shortly be diverted and the final architectural and engineering design of the project is virtually complete. The IAA is currently awaiting final government approval to begin construction. It is estimated that the project will be completed within the original budget of US$600 million.