(Source: Central Bureau of Statistics)
At the end of 2011, the Moslem population was estimated to be 1.354 million, an increase of around 33,000 residents as compared to the end of 2010.
The rate of growth of the Moslem population is falling: from 3.8% in 2000, to 2.5% in 2011, but remains the highest in Israel: the rate of growth for Jews was 1.8%, for Druze – 1.7%, and for Christians – 1.3%.
More than half the Moslem population is concentrated in the north (36.8% in the Northern District, and 14.2% in the Haifa District). Another 21.5% live in the Jerusalem District. The remainder live in the Central District (11.2%) and the Southern District (15.2%). Only 1.1% lives in the Tel Aviv District.
The largest number of Moslem residents can be found in the city of Jerusalem – around 251,000, and they comprise 20.8% of all the Moslems in Israel, and approximately 35% of the city’s population. The city with the second highest number of Moslem residents is Rahat in the Negev, where 55,000 Moslems reside, comprising 99.8% of the town’s residents. Other towns with a high concentration of a Moslem population are Nazareth – 51,000 – and Umm al-Fahm – 48,300.
The Moslem population is young; there is a large percentage of children, and a low percentage of old people: 38.3% of the Moslem population are aged 0-14 (approximately 519,000) and only 3.5% of them are aged 65 and over (approximately 47,000). This population structure is the result of a high fertility rate among Moslem women. At the same time, the total fertility rate (the average number of children which a woman is expected to give birth to in her life) has been on the decline in recent years.
In 2011, the total fertility rate (the average number of children which a woman is expected to give birth to in her life) in the Moslem population stood at 3.5 children per woman, declining from 4.7 children per woman in 2000.
The fertility rate for Moslem women is higher than that of the other religious groups in Israel (Jews 3.0, Druze 2.3, Christians 2.0), and than that which exists in some of the Arab countries (for example: Syria 3.0, Egypt 2.9, Turkey 2.0 and Lebanon 1.9).
The highest fertility rate was for Moslem women who lived in the Southern District – 5.5 children for each woman, and the lowest fertility rate was among Moslem women in the Northern District and Tel Aviv District.
In 2010, the average age of Moslem grooms marrying for the first time (26.3) was low relative to those marrying of other religions (Jews 27.8, Christians 30.0, and Druze 27.6).
The same year, the average age of Moslem brides marrying for the first time (21.6) was low relative to those marrying of other religions (Jews 25.7, Christians 25.2, and Druze 23.0).
The Moslem population comprises approximately 243,000 households.
The average size of a household is 5.0 persons. Most of the households (around 95%) are family households, including at least one family. The remainder are non-family households, most of which (93%) are households of one person living alone.
Approximately 38% of the households headed by a Moslem number 6 or more persons, in comparison to only 9% of households headed by a Jew.
There are approximately 243,000 Moslem families in Israel. Most of the Moslem families are comprised of a couple with children, at least one of which is below the age of 17; approximately 8% of the families are comprised of a couple without children; around 5% of the families are single parents, with children, the youngest of who is aged up to 17.
The average number of children up to age 17 in Moslem families with children up to this age is 2.99, high in relation to the average number of children up to age 17 in Jewish families (2.25).
The average monthly consumption expenditure for Moslem households totals NIS 12,168 – approximately 84.5% of that of Jewish households (NIS 14,395).
Household expenditure for 2011
The average monthly consumption expenditure for Moslem households totals NIS 12,168 – approximately 84.5% of that of Jewish households (NIS 14,395).
The average monthly expenditure for food (including fruits and vegetables) in Moslem households is NIS 2,769 a month, and is higher than the expenditure on food in Jewish households – NIS 2,184, and also comprises a relatively larger part of household expenditure (18.8% as compared to 12.4%, respectively).
The average monthly expenditure on meat and poultry in Moslem households is 2.4 times as much as in Jewish households, and the average monthly expenditure for soft drinks is 1.8 times that of Jewish households. Likewise, the average monthly expenditure on pita bread in Moslem households is 9.2 times that of the expenditure on pita bread in Jewish households, and the expenditure on black coffee is 3.9 times higher in Moslem households.
At the same time, the average monthly expenditure on meals outside the home in Moslem households is 1.5 times lower than that in Jewish households, and the average monthly expenditure on breakfast cereals is 2.7 times lower.
The percentage of participation in the civilian labor force among Moslems aged 15 and over in 2011 was 39.9% (60.4% among men and 18.9% among women). The rate of participation among women is substantially lower in relation to this percentage among Jewish, Christian, and Druze women (58.9%, 47.4% and 23.0% respectively).
The rate of unemployed among Moslems aged 15 and over is 6.1%.
66% of the Moslems who are employed work in four main economic industries – approximately 23% in the construction industry, approximately 17% in the wholesale and retail industry, repairing motor vehicles, motorcycles, motor scooters, and goods for personal and household use, approximately 13% in the field of education, and approximately 13% in manufacturing.
29% of the Moslem men who are employed work in construction, approximately 19% in the wholesale and retail industry, repairing motor vehicles, motor scooters, and goods for personal and household use, and approximately 16% in manufacturing.
Approximately 39% of the Moslem women who are employed work in the field of education, approximately 11% in the wholesale and retail industry, repairing motor vehicles, motor scooters, and goods for personal and household use, and approximately 5% in manufacturing.
80% of the Moslems who are employed work in four main occupations – approximately 42% are skilled workers in manufacturing, in construction, and other skilled workers, and approximately 15% are agents, salespeople and work in services, approximately 13% are unskilled workers, and 10% work in liberal and technical professions.
54% of the Moslem men who are employed are skilled workers in manufacturing, construction, and other skilled workers, approximately 14% are agents, salespeople, and work in services, and approximately 14% are unskilled workers.
30% of the Moslem women who are employed work in liberal and technical professions, approximately 22% are agents, salespeople and work in services, and approximately 11% are unskilled workers.
In 186,200 Moslem households (77% of all the Moslem households) there was at least one employed person.
In approximately 12% of the Moslem households, everyone is employed, as opposed to approximately 39% of the Jewish households, approximately 25% of the Christian households, and approximately 15% of the Druze households.
Housing density in Moslem households was 1.58 persons per room.
There were 355,351 Moslem pupils in elementary and secondary education in Israel and they comprise 23% of all pupils. 32,343 Moslem pupils began first grade in the 2011/12 school year, and they comprise 23% of all first grade pupils.
Among high school pupils, 38% study in a technological track (in comparison to 35% among the Jewish pupils).
The rate of eligibility for a matriculation certificate in 2011 in Arab education was lower than that in Hebrew education – 50% in comparison to 58% among twelfth grade pupils.
Moslems comprise the vast majority of twelfth grade pupils in Arab education – 81%, and their matriculation eligibility rate was 48%, in comparison to 55% among the Druze pupils, and 64% among the Christian pupils.
Higher Education and Science
In 2010/11, 22,500 Moslem students were studying in all of Israel’s institutes of higher education. For comparison, in 2009/10 this population numbered 21,000 students, and in 1999/2000 there were half the number of those in 2010/11 (10,500).
In 2010/11, 8,900 students studied in universities, 2,900 studied at the Open University, 4,200 students studied in academic colleges (2,500 of them in the publicly funded colleges and 1,700 in non-publicly funded colleges), and 6,500 students studied in academic colleges of education.
Among all Moslem students, 85% were studying for a bachelor’s degree (22.8% were in their first year of study), 12.7% were studying for a master’s degree, 1.3% were studying for a doctorate, and 1.1% were studying for academic certification. For comparison, in 1999/2000, 90.9% of the Moslem students were studying for a bachelor’s degree and 7.6% were studying for more advanced degrees.
In 2010/11, Moslem students comprised 7.7% of all students in Israel (for comparison, Moslems are 17.1% of the total number of residents of Israel).
Examining the rates of Moslem students in 2010/11 according to academic degree shows that they comprise 8.1% of bachelor’s degree students, 4.6% of students for a master’s degree, and 2.6% of doctoral students. Their relative proportion grew in comparison with 1999/2000 (5.9% for a bachelor’s, 2.2% for a master’s and 1.9% for a doctorate).
In 2010/11, Moslem students comprised 7.2% of all university students, 6.5% of Open University students, 4.4% of students at academic colleges, and 21.7% of all students at academic colleges of education.
At the universities, the highest rate of Moslem students was at the University of Haifa (13.7%) and at the Technion (7.9%), and the lowest at the Weizmann Institute of Science (1.7%). In the academic colleges, their highest rate was at the Zefat Academic College (33.3%) and at the Academic College of Israel in Ramat Gan (23.1%). The relative percentage of Moslems ranges between 10-16% at five additional academic colleges. At the same time, their rate is under 1.5% at ten academic colleges.
13.5% of Jewish students for a bachelor’s degree were studying in the field of education and teacher training, in comparison to 39.2% among Moslem students who were studying in this field. The rate of students studying paramedical studies was also higher among the Moslem students than the Jewish students (10.6% as compared with 3.8%, respectively), and also for languages, literature, and regional studies (3.8% as compared with 1.7%, respectively). At the same time, 18% of Jewish students for a bachelor’s degree were studying in the field of engineering and architecture, while only 7.4% of the Moslem students studied in this field. Three additional areas which were more common among Jewish students were: business studies and management science (12.7% in comparison with 4.7%, respectively), agriculture (0.5% in comparison with 0.1%, respectively) and especially art, the arts, and practical art (4.2% in comparison with 0.7%, respectively).
The median age of Moslem students studying for a bachelor’s degree was 22.4 years, compared with 25.6 among the Jewish students who are studying for such a degree. Among Moslem students studying for a master’s degree, the median age stood at 31.2, which is slightly higher than the median age of Jewish students for a master’s degree (30.8 years). The median age among Arab students studying for a doctorate is 36.4, as compared to 33.7 among Jewish students who are studying for a doctoral degree.
Among Moslem students studying for a bachelor’s degree, women comprised 68.7%, as compared with 54.3% among Jewish students studying for a bachelor’s degree. 61.9% of the Moslem students studying for a master’s degree were women, as compared with 58.6% among Jewish students studying for this degree. There were 37.9% of women among Moslem students studying for a doctorate as compared with 53% among all students studying for a doctoral degree.
Selected data from the Social Survey 2011, aged 20 and above
Satisfaction with life and economic situation
Most of the Moslem population aged 20 and above are satisfied with their lives, 41% are ‘very satisfied’ (as compared to 38% of the Jewish population) and 44% are ‘satisfied’ (as compared to 51% of the Jewish population).
11% of the Moslems are ‘very satisfied’ with their economic situation (similar to the rate among the Jewish population), 44% are ‘satisfied’ with their economic situation, 26% are ‘fairly unsatisfied’ and 19% are ‘totally unsatisfied’ with their economic situation (13% of the Jewish population report likewise).
50% of the Moslem population report that they are ‘not very successful’ or ‘totally unsuccessful’ in covering all their monthly household expenditure for food, electricity, telephone etc. (36% of the Jewish report likewise).
Rate of religiosity
Among the Moslems, 8% define themselves as very religious, 62% – religious, 22% – not so religious, and 8% – not religious.
The rate of religious women is higher than religious men: Among Moslem women, 12% define themselves as very religious, 68% – religious, 17% – not so religious, and 3% – irreligious. Among the Moslem men: 4% define themselves as very religious, 57% – religious, 27% – not so religious, and 12% – irreligious.
40% of Moslems report that they understand Hebrew "to a very high level", and 24% "on a high level". 22% report that they understand Hebrew "at a medium level" or "a weak level", and 14% "do not understand Hebrew at all". 46% note that when they speak, they sometimes mix Arabic and Hebrew (or another language) together. 37% of the Moslems who work speak Hebrew as the primary language in their workplace.
31% of the Moslems report that, in addition to Arabic, they know English to at least the level of everyday conversation (as compared to 62% of the Jewish population).
81% of the Moslems believe it is "very important" or "important" that the schools in the Jewish sector teach Arabic as a compulsory subject (as compared to 64% of the Jewish population).
Attitudes to education
Moslems ascribe great importance to academic education: 82% of the Moslems believe that academic education is "very important" for success in life (as compared to 54% of the Jewish population), a further 16% believe it is "important". 93% of Moslems who have a child up until the age of 24 in their household would like their children to get an academic education (as compared to 72% of Jewish parents).
46% of Moslem parents say that there is a particular profession which they would like their children to have (as compared to 27% of Jewish parents): of them, 59% (who comprise 27% of Moslem parents) would like their child to be a doctor, as compared to 24% of the Jews, 11% want their child to be a teacher (13% of the Jews), 10% an engineer (as compared to 19% of the Jewish population), 8% a lawyer (10% of the Jewish population), and 4% would like their child to be an accountant or an economist (as compared to 11% of the Jewish population). The remainder, approximately 8%, mentioned a range of other professions.
Free time and leisure
66% of the Moslems report that they read newspapers during the past year (87% of the Jewish population); 42% of the Moslems reported that they had read books during their leisure time (66% of the Jewish population); 17% of the Moslems report that they had been to the theater, an entertainment show or children’s show during the past year (53% of the Jewish population); 16% watched sports events (18% of the Jewish population); 13% had been to the movie theater (50% of the Jewish population); 11% had visited a museum or art exhibition (41% of the Jewish population). 46% of the Moslems use a computer (77% of the Jewish population).
1. For 2011. Source www.prb.org
2. A household is defined as one person or a group of persons living together in one dwelling on a permanent basis most of the week, who have a common expenditure budget for food. A household may include persons who are not related to one another. A family household is a household that contains at least one family.
Data on households and families are based on the Labor Force Survey 2010. The data does not include those living in institutions, kibbutzim, student dormitories, and people living outside communities (Bedouins in the south and others).
3. Family – defined as a nuclear family of two persons or more who share the same household and are related to one another as husband and wife, as an unmarried couple, or as parent and child. Thus, the main categories of families are: a couple, a couple with children (in various age groups, defined by the age of the youngest child), or one parent (a single parent family) with children.