The captives ‘ 73 ‘

רא”ל דוד אלעזר (“דדו”), הרמטכ”ל בזמן המלחמה, משוחח עם חיילים בחזית המצרית. צילומים: דובר צה”ל

Maj. (Res.) Ze’ev Falk, who was responsible for the treatment of the captured “the Yom Kippur war, on their return home,” questioned and cried with them, I always felt they were our soldiers. “

תאריך: 25/09/2012, 14:40    
מחבר: רותם פסו, אתר צה”ל

39 years since alarm sounded on Yom Kippur of 1973, the war is largely due to the recall. All the alerts and warnings in possible ahead of the military hierarchy and the political echelon, but people in key positions to open their eyes. Her concept, leading to the entrance of the civil war.
Suddenly, claimed many casualties and more than 300 captives in enemy hands, of which 239 in captivity. The storm that enveloped the whole country and the IDF and organizing events
Conditions of this magnitude on the detection and identification efforts.

Maj. (Res.) Ze’ev Falk, who was Deputy Head of the intelligence research section enemy in EM
And on behalf of the field security Department reveals the process of identifying and treating prisoners of war from the perspective of the IDF’s culling of pictures in the Israeli and international media to return the captives and their interrogation facility in zichron Yaakov – Polk sheds light on the complex reality, as expressed through the eyes of the person you would trust for treatment of captivity “that which Egypt.

Five mothers who show him a picture: “my son.”

Pollak began his military service in the armored Corps, and over time was transferred to field security Department and Commission. After his release from the IDF completed an undergraduate
In the Middle East and East Africa, and decided to return to the Israeli right in the Yom Kippur war. “I went back to study intelligence branch, which was specific section name in it,” says Pollack.

With the outbreak of war, it was clear that no army ready to deal with extensive operations
Detection and identification of missing persons, especially Faculty bodies like the administration or the master Adjutant (operated until the establishment of the Adjutant Corps following the lessons of the Yom Kippur war) were not able to address all the problems that arose in the personnel department. Mobilizing reserve forces was rushed and behavior and awareness of the subject would fit. “I remember cases where bodies were found.
Film on tank, not knowing who these people who have lost their lives. Nobody wrote in an orderly manner who comes to enlist, “paints a disturbing picture of folk.

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The war lasted 19 days, and media reports on POWs were few. “I remember a case in which the Egyptians a siege placed ‘ the pier ‘, and could identify some
Of the missing. Sometimes we didn’t know who the picture people, “says Pollack. At a certain stage of the handling of prisoners appointed Polk intelligence agent responsible for providing care.
The material found by the intelligence community to locate the hostages. “It was not an official nomination, but started to centralize the handling of prisoners. All the intelligence officials
Would send me all informations only received about persons, which later turned out prisoners “,
Describes the event sequence more folk.

In addition to the IDF attempts to glean information and assemble a complete picture, the panic began to spread throughout the general public. “Prime Minister Golda Meir announced in one of her having hundreds of casualties, which put many parents nervous,” notes.
In addition to tracking the attempts over casualties in the war were buried in three makeshift cemeteries, each located in different spaces command. Those bodies were identified before burial.
And later transferred to the local cemetery. “People were running along the lines to make sure their names never appear there, against the backdrop of abnormal panic,” says Pollack. Addition to reporting casualties, almost no mail items received from the field.

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In an extraordinary decision determined that the General staff will help parents identify the captives.
“Now the adjutant at five centres have been opened throughout the country, were invited to help parents identify the captives. I been rehabilitated at the Center, which opened in one of the cellars in Ibn Gabirol Street. Each one hung photos obtained from the media, according to some “enlarged, showing the folk process. This non-routine situation where parents were required to identify their loved ones in the picture plays. “Five mothers were pointing it in a picture, and claimed it was her son. There were very few faces could be seen in their entirety, and the mothers were insistence and arguing
With one another. For many it was a wishful thinking more than the imagination “, Polk the reality created in parallel to the fighting fronts. Slowly accumulated reconciled names, which helps. “Once they arrived in the Israeli context reports on fatalities or
About missing, thus Bodin who was missing and who apparently empty space, “says Pollack.

Towards the end of the fighting, when he obviously will stop soon, sought a joint evaluation of the amount
The captives. “We have about 450 prisoners in front of Egypt and Syria were conflicting news – thousands of POWs to nil from suspicion everyone else eliminated. Finally, the estimated that Syria fell from 80-150 soldiers, “says Pollack. A full 40 days to end the hostilities began the prisoner exchange processes. Those included in the cease-fire with Egypt and signed by Maj. Gen. Aharon Yariv, who was Special Assistant to the Chief of staff, and Gen. Al-gmasi, who headed the team.

Wept along with the detainees, we’ve always had that question our soldiers

The hostages from captivity of Egypt land at the airport in Lod in November 1973. Several barracks were prepared to accept them and question them. “The questions touched primarily for identifying and personal information”, stresses Polk. Formulated lists of questions and questionnaires, classified by the salesman even. “It was a short debriefing minutes value,” says Pollack.

Many of the “Egyptian captivity said they did not allow them to meet their family members at the airport, but that period press the prisoner exchange was very problematic
Against the Egyptians from the numeric keypad. It took real mathematical formulas, or arrangements conducted in groups and lasted about a week, and in any case not Egyptians moved to Israel returning all flight lists. In order to prevent families anguish and comb drive
At the airport, the IDF gave them official announcement whereby: “son iusa IDF home within a day. Please request any tongue to be patient and wait for him to return home. In June 1974, when return of the Syrian prisoners and week.
After returned from there just wounded, Airport received all remaining POWs returning on one flight by family members who were waiting instead.

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Captured Egyptian soldiers.

The issue of prisoners in the State of Israel remains full of pathos and on line, by perpetuating the story of URI Ilan – warrior who committed suicide after being captured in the Syrian between clothes is the sentence: “I did not betray, suicide. Former Defense Minister Moshe Dayan made the first two words in the expression of personal sacrifice for the security of the country. “Soldiers who spoke in captivity feared drop them in rank that revealed secrets. If returning from captivity, these public voices more than once why not kill yourself? “people thought soldier who falls captive should keep the last bullet for rifle,” says Falk on another concept the obsolescence of the Israeli public. “The pilots captured, however, and received inconclusive before every sortie over foreign territory. There were clear instructions of security forwarded field, regarding information – how to release information and what information is not released to the world, including schedules. The air force ahead of others in this approach, they cannot as yet tell, revealing folk moods.

“The investigation for the driver seat memory investigations, when security researchers assembled, אכ”א, field medical teams and psychologists. “We need to assess the level of damage that you can expect in terms of the information to the Egyptian intelligence,” said Pollack. Apart from medical and psychological tests, come to the Mag too. “Various factors collected testimony about torture in captivity, to Israel
You can complain to the UN and before international courts “, says Pollack on
“The concern for me. Captivity “housed in the interrogation facility for three weeks, during which his past.

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Captured Egyptian soldiers.

Many seat “reported experiences of humiliation from the interrogation room, and argued that there was a pause traumatic for them. Polk, one of some 20 researchers on behalf of the security in the field “investigation into captivity, paints a completely different picture. “We wept together with detainees. In our catch up meetings and shared information in order to know what to ask anyone. I knew the people involved, we had no intention to hurt or injure,
Claims and folk added that “our them they weren’t traitors, as they sometimes called themselves, and that they should not worry about what they say incriminate them and stand against them.”

Judah, kiln to which prisoners from captivity, also Egyptian detainees at the facility in zichron Yaacov and described the experience in one of the raionotav of communication as a positive experience. “For me, it
It was good, “testified the same kiln interview. “It was kind of cold period that allowed me a soft return to civilian life. We spent three weeks in memory, all the hostages together, talking, laughing, crying and unloading cargo, “confirmed his claims of folk kiln.

The investigation itself, folk said, almost pastoral. “The place was beautiful, every soldier rehabilitation got room or two shochno.
Sometimes we got them for interrogation rooms or sitting on the lawn instead.
The soldiers had a siesta, a doctor would come. We always had in mind those soldiers. Not brought in people to investigate them, for example, they are more experienced in investigation techniques and detainee information retrieval “, says Pollack. The disconnect of the families is the only qualification. “It was hanging up arbitrarily first-class, certain factors may have thought needed to isolate them, maybe it’s not so bad, but it was painful to see families on definitions and looking for experienced teachers,” says Pollack.
Rumors of random violence is completely: “there was no one from any of the factors.

Eventually, the “Egyptian captivity not knowing enough to harm Israel.
“The soldiers who came to us for investigation were mainly fighters from the forces and armored forces that were in. I mean knowing clearly and unequivocally – there were no psychological manipulation to extract information. Most were simple soldiers, who they had information which could harm the country strategically, “notes.

Slowly got back their confidence.

Against the background of everyday reality in the interrogation facility, remember to Polk one that occurred there.

The story revealed here, describes the humiliation of almost OC Southern command
At the time, Shmuel gonen (gorodish), to deliver a lecture at the facility. “400 people gathered in a theater complex and beautiful gorodish has come to lecture. By then he was up for all
The soldiers, especially armored forces, and he was unusually, testified. General Goodpaster person yeller gorodish, weather Warrior leaves. During the war hurt his status with the appointment of Lieutenant General Bar-Lev to the southern Front Commander, following function failed during the fighting. Also the appointment of major general Israel Tal (tlik) OC South after the war clouds.

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“When the IGRA goeth said – there is no better example of that. Gorodish has been attacked from all sides, “notes. In her lecture, many of the “shabby and battered him to hatrshloto. “Lookout who saw how had good morning Egypt 40 soldiers grew to 4,000 in the territory. ‘ What did you do with that knowledge is
Asked him impudently. Another soldier to deliver reports on the deployment of Egyptian forces on the ground ask a question ID “, Polk and adds that” the soldiers weren’t looking afraid, lest a view not found. Now, the soldiers who were considered by many as the storyteller and traitors talked to him like that. These people gradually got back their confidence. “

Translated from Hebrew